Behavioral and Psychological Interventions
Spine or other pain is experienced by each individual through a complex interaction of neurological (peripheral and central), psychological, and social variables. Pain elicits various autonomic, neuro-protective, and affective responses. (Turk, Swanson et al. 2010) These physiologic and cognitive-behavioral responses can be altered with appropriate training and insight, leading to partial control of central processing of pain, or influence the activation of descending pain inhibition pathways. (Fishman, Ballantyne et al. 2010; Lorenz and Hauck 2010) Training in one or more behavioral interventions for [chronic] pain might impart effective pain management tools and strategies for cervical radiculopathy (CR) patients. (van Tulder, Ostelo et al. 2000; Argoff, Albrecht et al. 2009; Jain 2009; Jain, Culpepper et al. 2009; Henschke, Ostelo et al. 2010) Persson, et al (Persson and Lilja 2001) found that patients with CR often have concomitant behavioral or emotional dysfunction and suggested that treatment outcomes were enhanced by the inclusion of a cognitive-behavioral approach to the treatment program. It is clear that catastrophizing, fear of pain, and anxiety can have an impact on the pain experience. (Hirsh, George et al. 2008) There is evidence that catastrophizing has a biological influence on the endogenous opiod pain-control systems, systemic inflammatory processes, and may influence muscle tone, blood pressure, and heart contractility responses to pain. (Campbell and Edwards 2009; Quartana, Campbell et al. 2009) It is important to address depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances as part of a comprehensive treatment program. (Smith, Quartana et al. 2009; Fishman, Ballantyne et al. 2010; McCracken 2010)
Reviews of biopsychosocial rehabilitation (Karjalainen, Malmivaara et al. 2001) and patient education (Haines, Gross et al. 2009) programs for the treatment of neck pain have not revealed high quality studies which would support these approaches. Nevertheless, it is recommended that conservative care practitioners include behavioral interventions in their conservative treatment plans, and develop a network of behavioral intervention providers so that treatment options can be paired with the unique needs and preferences of each subject.
1. Informal psychological inquiry screening may be carried out by the physiatrist, at the time of entry evaluation,done in all patients in order to screen for evidence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, high addiction potential, or other psychological disorders, which may influence subjects’ response to treatment. Patients will also be provided with educational written material, making them aware of some of the signs of depression, insomnia, or anxiety, as well as an introduction to some of the treatment strategies that may assist with pain management (Appendix IV). This will include an invitation to discuss these matters with their physician. Identified disorders should be treated with specific psychological, and possibly pharmacological, interventions.
2. One or moreAt least one of the following approaches maymust be offered to patients (Argoff, Albrecht et al. 2009): cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), habit reversal, relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, hypnosis and guided imagery, assertiveness skills training, and patient education. Written educational material can also be provided to each patient (download available).
Psychological Education Materials for Patients
It is well known and accepted that your state of mind can have a significant impact on how you perceive and manage your pain. There are many non-medication strategies that can be used to gain some control over how you are affected by pain. Treating associated problems such as depression, anxiety, or insomnia, which frequently accompany pain, can also help reduce pain levels.
Recognizing the signs of depression is not always easy. If you are experiencing feelings of sadness, emotional ups and downs, have lost interest in social or other (previously) fun activities, have trouble getting out of bed in the morning, have lost your appetite or energy, have a sense of hopelessness, you feel agitated or anxious, then please do not hesitate to discuss these symptoms with your doctor. These may be signs of depression or another medical condition.
Anxiety, the frequent feeling of nervousness, fear, or feeling uptight, can be present with or worsen in response to pain. It, in turn, can make your experience of pain tougher to cope with. Also, a lack of restful sleep can have a negative effect on your ability to manage pain. If you are experiencing significant difficulty sleeping, whether it is from pain, worry, or other reasons, you should bring this to the attention of your doctor.
There are many ways to deal with pain or associated problems with mood, anxiety, or sleep. Aerobic (cardio) exercise can be very helpful because it causes the release of chemicals in the brain that are helpful for all of these problems. This makes exercise an ideal form of pain and stress management. Your goal should be to gradually increase the amount of weekly exercise to 2 ½ total hours of moderate to vigorous exercise. Choose a form of exercise that you can tolerate and enjoy, and consider mixing types. Biking, walking, swimming or pool walking, endurance strength training, yoga, Tai Chi, or Pilates are good examples. Seek guidance on the safety or appropriateness of these exercises for you, specifically, from your doctor or physical therapist.
Relaxation training can be done with the help of instructional recordings, biofeedback specialists, or pain psychologists. This can be an excellent way to control pain or anxiety, and to promote sleep.
Good sleep “hygiene” includes the avoidance of television or computer work in bed before sleep, stopping caffeine at or before lunch, and having a notepad by your bedside to write down any recurring thoughts or ideas so that you can “let them go”.
These and other useful ideas for managing your pain can be learned through the help of a pain psychologist, or by working with other specialists. Your doctor can help counsel you, or direct you to the approach or specialist that is right for you. Medications may occasionally be used to treat pain, depression, anxiety, or sleep disorders, as well.