Cervical Epidural Steroid Injections (CESI) and Other Interventions for the Treatment of Neck Pain and Upper Extremity Pain
Cervical epidural steroid injections are the only form of conservative treatment for cervical radicular pain (CR) that has supportive data and some consensus opinion[1, 2] of their efficacy. There is evidence for the use of cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections (CTFESIs) [2-10], and also evidence supporting the use of cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CILESIs) [3, 11-13]. There are theoretical advantages, and known risks, to either approach, however . CTFESIs offer the advantage of injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid in a directed and concentrated manner to the involved nerve root(s). There have been cases of severe neurological injury or death with this approach, and there has been discussion in the literature regarding the risk vs. benefit of performing CTFESIs. [14, 15] The risks of CTFESI are minimized when a standardized technique, avoidance of excessive sedation, and soluble steroid are used. [16-21] Interlaminar ESIs offer the possible advantage of using particulate steroids, and targeting can be relatively well focused with a paramedian approach and the use of low volumes of injectate, although significant complications are still possible. [3, 22-26] Both approaches are reasonable options.
Additional CESIs can be offered towards the goals of the extinction of symptoms or the restoration of the initial response. It is postulated that the use of repeat injections, when there is a partial response to the prior, may lead to complete relief of pain, and, the best chance of establishing long term improvement of CR symptoms. Likewise, the use of additional injections to treat recurrent pain, following an initial cessation or substantial reduction of pain, may lead to improved long term outcomes.
It is important to ensure that providers of these injections are experienced, safe, and competent, and that they agree to use standardized procedural techniques [3, 16, 19, 21, 22, 27, 28]. The recommended CILESI technique, as noted by Huston, should be modified to utilize a paramedian approach, due to the known incidence of absence of an interlaminar ligament/flavum in the midline, and a 50% chance of unilateral (but uncontrolled) flow of injectate from the midline. A paramedian approach somewhat controls for these variables. This necessitates the use of the “laminar” or ”rooftop” fluoroscopic view to check depth during the procedure.
The concomitant presence of both discogenic and facetogenic pain may be more prevalent in the cervical spine than in the lumbar spine. [27, 29] It is probable that there are not an insubstantial number of patients with CR who will also have pain and disability from concomitant cervical zygapophysial joint generation. Treatment of this cervical Z-joint (CZJ) related pain (or lumbar facet pain) might be indicated to optimize outcomes with CR. This would apply primarily to those cases where the presenting radicular pain has subsided, but there remains sufficient axial pain to effect patients’ reporting of pain, healthcare utilization, and disability. Use of standard techniques for CZJ related intra-articular, medial branch (MB) block, and MB radiofrequency neurotomies is required. [27, 30] CZJ (or LZJ) procedures may be offered according to practice parameters based on parallel (lumbar) guidelines offered by Noridian in their coverage determination for Lumbar Z-Joint procedures (See Noridian Facet Coverage Determination), as well as the work of Lord, Barnsley, and others. [31-34] These guidelines (Noridian) were based on a multi-specialty, multi-society collaborative effort to reach consensus on the proper utilization of these (lumbar) procedures.
Cervical Epidural Steroid (and other) Injections:
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